San Antonio, TX
Materials: Wood, Canvas, Leather, Paint
This object is a reproduction of a 19th Century covered wagon. It was gifted to the museum on November 20, 1976 by the American Revolution Bicentennial Commission of Texas. It was the second wagon in line as part of the Southern route wagon train for the Bicentennial Pilgrimage.
In 1976, the United States celebrated its 200th birthday with festivities across all fifty states. In a monumental effort to bring the nation together, an idea was created that would involved every state, a year-long nationwide wagon train pilgrimage. A pilgrimage is a journey in search of moral or spiritual significance. For the Bicentennial Celebration, it was a way to reaffirm the founding morals of the country. Each state sponsored an authentic covered wagon, which would be represented on a wagon train to Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.
In total, there were five separate trains, recreating five distinct historic routes in westward expansion– the Northwest route, the Southwest route, the Southern route, the Great Lakes route, and the Colonies route. The Texas covered wagon was part of the Southern route, along with nine other wagons. The Pilgrimage represented a replay of history in reverse, with all of the wagon trains meeting up at the birthplace of the nation in Valley Forge, on July 4, 1976.
During a time when the country was frustrated and tired from government scandals, the Bicentennial wagon train was designed to reach out to communities and rededicate the country to the founding ideals and principles of the United States. This was a way to bring people together at every level- federal, state, local, and within communities. Participants could commit themselves to the entire duration of the wagon train, or they could join for shorter periods of time. The idea was particularly to get entire families involved- some families even pulling their kids out of school to participate.
The wagon now housed at the Institute of Texan Cultures was a gift from that pilgrimage. It is the original Texas wagon, which was driven by Hazel Bowen, a native Texan and horse-handling expert. After the Bicentennial celebrations ended, Hazel drove the wagon back to Texas, and a few months later, was able to drive it once again through the streets of San Antonio. On November 20, 1976 Hazel, escorted by the 1st Cavalry of the United States Army, drove the wagon from Freeman Coliseum, through the streets of downtown San Antonio, and parked it on the grounds of the Institute of Texan Cultures. This historic covered wagon has been on permanent display since then. [Carrie Klein, edited by Kathryn S. McCloud]
I-0356a, c, and e
Reproduction Norse Navigation Tools
Materials: Wood and metal
These objects are replicas of Norse navigation tools, used by sailors to find their latitude before the sextant and Global Positioning System (GPS) were invented. Tools like these were used in order to figure out where in the sea a sailor was. Traveling by land, explorers can use nature, roads, paths, mile markers and landmarks that make it easier to get one from place to another. However, terrain that has few, or no, landmarks like the desert or the sea are difficult to navigate. Using latitude and longitude helps sailors and explorers determine how far they are from their starting point. Using latitude and longitude can help sailors reach their destination correctly, give or take by a few miles.
A quadrant, was used to measure the altitude or angle above the horizon of a star, this helped sailors calculate their latitude, or the lines on a map going from West to East. Sailors in the northern hemisphere would use the North Star, the brightest star, to find their latitude at night because it is directly over the north celestial pole and never sets. They would measure the height of the star when they started their journey and then they would compare it to the measurements as they traveled with a quadrant. They measured the height of the star from the horizon by placing the quadrant near their eye and the weight will fall to the correct degree.
Other tools used by sailors, Vikings mostly, are the pelorus and the sun shadow board. A pelorus resembles a mariner’s compass, except there is no magnetic needle. This tool was used to measure latitude during the day time. The needle in the middle of the base, or the gnomen, cast a shadow and that shadow was looked at when the sun was in the noon position. A sun shadow board was placed in a bowl of water and was used to calculate the ships latitude and direction. The shadow and the little circles on the base told the sailors whether they were in the latitude they wanted to be in.
Longitude, or the lines on a map going from North to South, was found using the sun and time. However this calculation was more difficult because, unlike today, time was not kept universally and there wasn’t a way to check that your clock was set correctly. Also, clocks and watches needed to be wound up, therefore the watches slowed down and lost time every day as the internal clockworks ran out of energy. They calculated their longitude by knowing what time the sun was in a certain position in the sky at the Prime Meridian, which is at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, United Kingdom. By carrying a clock set to the time at the Prime Meridian, travelers then could compare what time the sun reached that set position in their location. Each hour of difference roughly equals a 15 degree change in longitude.
Many sailors from the 1500s to around the 19th century were explorers. One explorer by the name of Alonso Alvarez de Pineda, a Spanish explorer, was the first known European to map the Texas coastline. Many European explorers did not know where they ended up because they did not know how to calculate both their latitude and longitude. Many shipwrecked on unknown shores, claiming it and then not being able to find it again to colonize it. A French explorer who tried to claim Texas in the name of the French by establishing Fort St. Louis was Robert Cavelier, Sieur de LaSalle. Once time became universally synchronized and sailors and land explorers knew how to calculate their latitude and longitude they could explore land more accurately and then find it again when they were starting to colonize it. [Amanda Rock, edited by Joscelynn Garcia]
Limberjack or Jig Doll
This object is a limberjack doll, sometimes called a jig doll because it is designed to “dance a jig.” A limberjack doll is similar to a puppet. It is made of wood and is usually modeled after a human or animal figure. A limberjack doll features sectioned joints at the shoulder and elbows and at the hips and knees allowing the figure to move.
A limberjack doll is operated much like a rhythm instrument. First, you must sit with one end of a thin board under you, with the opposite end out in front or out to one side. While holding on to a wooden stick that is inserted in a small hole in the back of the doll, the doll is held above the board with its feet barely touching the board. Next, you lightly tap the board just behind the doll’s feet. The board will bounce gently causing the Limberjack Doll to move at the joints. These dolls provided hours of entertainment throughout Europe, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The limberjack doll featured here is modeled after a train porter. A porter is a person who assists passengers board trains. A porter is responsible for everything from loading a passenger’s luggage onto the train to making up the beds for passengers in the sleeper cars. In the United States the Pullman Company was responsible for creating the first sleeper cars in the 1860s. As the American Civil War came to an end, the company began hiring former slaves as porters. Since many middle class people had never had any type of assistance, the Pullman Company advertised trips in their sleeper cars as an upper class experience.
The Pullman Company became one of the largest employers of African-Americans. Although having a job as a porter was considered one of the best jobs African Americans could obtain, it was also a job where African Americans had to tolerate being stereotyped and many forms of abuse. The porters were paid incredibly low wages and had to rely on tips. In addition to being paid low wages, porters were required to pay for their own uniforms, the shoe shine they used on their customers shoes, food, overnight stays on the trains, as well as having to pay for items that were stolen by passengers. Often these costs added up to almost half of the Porter’s wages. Porters worked about 400 hours a month and worked shifts were sometimes 20 consecutive hours.
Although the Porters were not involved, there was an employee strike against the Pullman Company in 1894 over reductions in pay. The strike began in Chicago where the factory was located, and affected railroads across the United States when the strike stopped all trains using Pullman cars from moving. The President of the United States, Grover Cleveland, had to step in to end the strike. He ordered the Army to stop the striking employees. The strike left an unfavorable outcome for the employees as well as the Pullman Company. The strike was also a defeat for the American Railway Union that lead to the downfall of industrial unions.
In 1918 the Order of the Sleeping Car Conductors was created however, African Americans were not allowed. As a result Asa Philip Randolph created an organization called the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. In which porters demanded better working conditions and decent wages. It wouldn’t be until 1925 that Pullman porters saw any improvements. Today many credit Pullman porters as a significant contribution to the creation of the African American middle class. In 1995 the A. Philip Randolph Pullman Porter Museum was founded. One of their projects included forming a registry of African American Railroad Employees. In 2008 Amtrak became aware of this and partnered with museum to locate and honor surviving porters. [Kim Grosset edited by Joscelynn Garcia]
These objects are two plaques that were located at the Bexar county courthouse in downtown San Antonio. The plaques were installed in 1936 and commissioned by The American Legion and the Texas division of the United Daughters of the Confederacy. The plaques were erected in honor of the Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway and were dedicated to the soldiers of the Confederacy. The Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway was part of large project pioneered by the National Highway Association. Starting in 1916 and finished in 1920, the goal was to have a highway that would link Miami to Los Angeles.
The plaques were commissioned by the American Legion, a patriotic veteran’s organization established in 1919, dedicated “to the soldiers of the Confederacy and the daughters of the Confederacy.” The Legion has a long history of supporting pro-veteran legislation including the GI Bill. The plaques were also sponsored by the Texas division of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, which was originally founded in Nashville, Tennessee. The United Daughters of the Confederacy became one of the driving forces behind many Confederate memorials and monuments, often in collaboration with other organizations like the Sons of the Confederate Veterans and the American Legion.
However, these plaques were removed on July 21, 2015. The effort to remove the plaques was part of a larger nation-wide movement to remove monuments honoring the Confederacy. This movement gained momentum following a mass shooting in Charleston, South Carolina. The shooting took place in the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church, one of the oldest black churches in the United States and an important site for meetings during the Civil Rights Movement.
The shooting was labeled a hate crime after police learned the shooter yelled racial slurs while shooting the victims. It was later discovered that the shooter had posted images and a personal manifesto online which contained racist statements, and included the Confederate flag. The FBI defines a hate crime as a “criminal offense against a person or property motivated in whole or in part by an offender’s bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, ethnicity, gender, or gender identity.” As a result of the shooting 9 people lost their lives, all of whom were African American.
The shooting in Charleston prompted many people to protest the Confederate flag, as a symbol of hate, and called its removal from public spaces. In some locations protestors tried to remove the flag themselves and some were arrested. On June 22 the governor of South Carolina Nikki Haley called for the removal of the flag. The flag was officially removed in July after long hours of deliberations. Governors from Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina also sought to get rid of Confederate flag license plates in their states.
As Confederate flags came down from public spaces around the country, retailers like Walmart, Target, and Amazon stopped the sale of Confederate flag items. In San Antonio a call to inventory Confederate symbols around the city uncovered 9. The Bexar Country Commissioners Court deliberated for hours and finally came to the conclusion to take down the symbols. Judge Nelson Wolf stated, “We are simply not going to glorify a symbol which to many people, not all, but to many people has become a symbol of fear and a symbol of hate.” The plaques were donated to the Institute of Texan Cultures after the Commissioners Court directed that the plaques be placed “in an educational or museum setting where they can be interpreted in a balanced way.” [Tanner Norwood, edited by Joscelynn Garcia]
Material: Wood, Iron and Ceramic
Exploration is how many countries were born, without exploration we would not have the United States, we would not have the technologies, foods or even cultures that we experience today. Yet, every good explorer needs tools to help them navigate across the worlds’ terrain or vast seas. At the very least an explorer should know which direction they are going, and the compass was one of the first tools created to help give us direction. This replica compass has a small cup on a wooden base, along with an iron and wood crosspiece. This compass design is used by filling the cup with water and floating the wood and iron crosspiece in the water. The iron, if magnetized, will be pulled toward the north. Rubbing it with a magnet or lodestone can temporarily magnetize the iron or any other metals.
The lodestone is a naturally occurring stone with magnetic properties. Suspending the lodestone from a string or floating it on a piece of wood allowed it to move toward the northern magnetic pole, the north, because of its magnetic properties. How the lodestone itself is created is still debated. One theory suggests that lightning magnetizes the stones. Evidence to support such claims is that lodestones are often found near the earth’s surface, where lightning would be able to reach them. The origin of the name lodestone comes from Middle English, lode meaning way or course. Thus, the literal translation gives us the way or course stone, used by early mariners to show them the way.
Learn more about the lodestone and its mysterious power from this short video:
Before the compass the stars in our solar system were the main tools used to identify north, south, east and west. With the sun rising and setting the same way each day and stars mapping out what we today call constellations, a pattern was formed and directions were set. Directions, before the compass, were based on landmarks, such as a tall mountain or common streams. Some even claim that these early ways of giving directions is how Europe got its name, from the Phoenician word Ereb, meaning ‘toward the setting sun’. As the business of trade was important to many counties, devising a way to determine direction was crucial. It is not known for certain when the first compass was discovered, but the Chinese were amongst the first to write about the compass. With the discovery of the lodestone we find evidence of the earliest directional tools. Interestingly enough, early Europeans thought they were being pointed north, meanwhile the Chinese, using early compass technology, thought they were being directed south. This leads us to another confusion at hand, the moving north.
Now the north isn’t actually moving, but the magnetic north is, which is the direction that a compass leads you. Our magnetic north is shifting because it uses magnetic properties from the magnetic field of the earth. As the earth’s hot liquid core shifts it sends out electrical currents that make up the earth’s magnetic field and this changes the location of our magnetic north. It is still accurate for general direction but the compass can’t lead you to the geographical north pole. The geographical north, also often referred to as the ‘true’ north, is a fixed point in our Northern hemisphere. It is believed that mariners, most often our earliest known compass using explorers, were the first to notice the deviation between the true north and magnetic north. Thus, by the 1500s we had substantial mapping of the earth’s magnetic field, but it was later explorer John Ross, along with his nephew James Clark Ross, that would first locate the magnetic north pole.
Geologists have watched the magnetic north travel ever since, through traces of paleo-geomagnetism, which is just a long word for the study of the history of earth’s magnetic field found in rocks and minerals. They found that the magnetic poles of the earth have actually traded places several times over thousands of years. So the north we see on the compass today was once actually the southern magnetic pole, but the poles will switch again, so keep an eye on your compass. [Trisha Taylor, edited by Kathryn S. (Barr) McCloud]
Roald Amundsen. A Proposed Expedition to the North Magnetic Pole. The Geographical Journal .Vol. 19, No. 4 (Apr., 1902) , pp. 484-489. The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers).
Materials: Leather and brass studs
This item is a pair of worn leather chaps given to the museum in 1995. Chaps were and still are worn by cowboys and ranchers. This type of clothing is an essential piece of a cowboy’s attire that protect the legs of cowboys while riding horses and when walking through rough landscapes. Leather is a thick and durable material that is hard to penetrate. It makes it possible for a cowboy to walk safely through areas with thorns, burrs, stickers, and barbed wire. Chaps also help to protect the rider from friction related “saddle sores.”
During cattle drives leather chaps would have been crucial for cowboys. A cattle drive is when a herd of cattle are transported by foot from one place to another. These drives became very important in the 1840’s and 1850’s during the California Gold Rush. Due to the increase of wealth in California the demand for beef raised dramatically. Cattle from Texas was being driven and sold to California citizens for 50 to 200 dollars per head (between 1,500 and 6,000 dollars in today’s currency). Drives from Texas could last between five to six months. Later on in the 19th century, the Chisholm Trail became known. This trail is considered to have been one of the largest cattle drives in the country. At the most it is estimated that 600,000 to 700,000 cattle were driven from Texas through Oklahoma to Kansas in a single year.
On this trail a woman by the name of Mary O. Taylor Bunton (known as Mollie) made the ride with her husband James Howell Bunton, from Sweetwater, Texas to Coolidge, Kansas in 1886. Out of fear of being left alone on their ranch she decided that she would join the cattle drive. During that time it was considered inappropriate for a woman to ride on a cattle drive, making her one of the few cowgirls of the Old West. Despite speculation and doubt Mollie was determined to make the drive. She was one of few women (possibly the only) to make this drive and was named the “Queen of the Old Chisholm Trail” when it was over. Years later in 1915 Mollie made her cattle drive experiences into a book, “A Bride on the Old Chisholm Trail in 1886.” Years later in 1948 at the motion picture premier of “Red River” Mollie was honored since it was believed that she was the only woman to make it up the dangerous trail.
“Red River” is one of countless movies based on cowboy life and cattle drives. These motion pictures became extremely popular in the 20th century, later they were known as western movies. The star of this movie was the famous John Wayne, considered to some as the face of western films. Wayne’s career thrived for over 50 years, making an appearance in nearly 200 films and starring in 142 of them. Most of his movies Wayne is either a cowboy, a ranger, or something of the sort. In the early 1970’s he was offered a role in Larry McMurtry’s “The Streets of Laredo“. However, Wayne turned down the role and the film was forgotten until 1985 when McMurtry wrote a prequel novel called “Lonesome Dove.”
“Lonesome Dove” was turned into a minseries in 1989. It starred Robert Duvall and Tommy-Lee Jones as two retired Texas Rangers who decide to drive a herd of cattle from Texas to Montana. The story is inspired by the real life accounts of Charles Goodnight and Oliver Loving. The tale features the two men and their partners’ experiences on the trail. They face numerous life threatening adventures including floods, snakes, and Indians. These experiences plus many more would have been incidents that other real life cowboys went through. [McKayla McCarty, edited by Jennifer McPhail]
Shillelagh, walking stick
This walking stick, sometimes called a shillelagh, an Irish walking stick or club, was donated to the Institute of Texan Cultures by an Irish immigrant from west County Meath, Ireland, who immigrated to Texas in the 1870s. The shillelagh is reputed for being a fighting club. As travelers in Ireland would use it defend themselves from bandits and thieves when traveling on the road. Traditionally, Irish walking sticks are made from Blackthorn wood, a very hard durable wood.
The walking stick itself is named after the Shillelagh Forest in County Wicklow, Ireland, which was once full of massive oak trees until it was cut down for wood exports. During England’s occupation of Ireland, the term shillelagh became common when referring to Irish walking sticks, as the name was applied to the sticks by an Englishman. In Ireland, it was considered a “badge of honor” to carry a shillelagh for an Irishman. For young boys, carrying a walking stick was a sign that they had entered into manhood.
The shillelagh is a focal point of Irish stick fighting, and part of Irish tradition and culture. The walking stick associated with Bataireacht stick fighting, a form of Irish martial arts, and is a common weapon used in Irish stick martial arts. During the 17th and 18th centuries, fights would break out between community factions that opposed each other. Factions would be formed for many reasons, ranging from family feuds, dowry payments, to inheritance disputes. As these fights broke out more often, stick fighting martial arts developed as walking sticks were used as weapons. Each faction had its own martial arts style, using code words if needed to keep their fighting style known only within their community. Irish stick martial arts is practiced today in Ireland, and across the world is certain schools, such as the I.S.F. WORLDWIDE (ISFW) Association.
Demonstration and clips of martial stick fighting
Demonstration of Bataireacht stick fighting
As Irish immigrants came to the United States after the Great Potato Famine, these Irish-Americans became prominent advocates for independence of their home country. Under the influence of Americans ideals of freedom and democracy, Irish-Americans became active supporters of Irish independence from Britain, appealing to legal policies but also resorting to violent methods on occasion. As Irish-American fights broke out between factions in American cities, shillelagh stick fighting became associated with Irish culture during the late 19th century. [Caitlin VanWie, edited by Jennifer McPhail]
Materials: metal, paint
From 1935 until 1975 Texas license plates were only valid for one year at a time and the date was stamped into the plate itself, rather than a yearly registration sticker or seal. The color of the plate and the date stamp changed each year to help officials more easily recognize un-registered vehicles. However, exceptions were made during the Great Depression and WWII due to financial hardships and the desire to conserve metal. The 1968 Texas license plates were each stamped with the word “HemisFair” at the bottom to help promote the exposition being held that year in San Antonio.
The 1968 HemisFair exposition, also recognized as a “World’s Fair,” was the first international exposition in the Southwestern United States, and was held in conjunction with the 250th anniversary of the founding of San Antonio. Endorsed by congressman Henry B. Gonzales and many local businesses in San Antonio, the fair was a celebration of Latin American culture and was designed to promote the city of San Antonio as a center for international trade between the US and the world. The theme of HemisFair ’68 was the “Confluence of Civilizations in the Americas,” and more than thirty nations were featured during the fair. Many of those nations hosted exhibit pavilions in an area of the HemisFair park complex called “Las Plazas del Mundo.” To help highlight San Antonio and Texas’ strong ties to Latin America and the world, the Institute of Texan Cultures first opened as the Texas State Exhibits Pavilion at the 1968 HemisFair. Today, the museum continues to pursue a mandate as the state’s center for multicultural education by investigating the varied experiences of people from across the world who call Texas home. [Kathryn S. McCloud]
The following video describes the 1968 HemisFair in more detail.
Toy, Jeepney Bus
Materials: Metal, plastic
This is a toy bus that is modeled after a Filipino Jeepney which is a mode of public transportation in the Philippines. The bus is made out of tin and is painted in bright colors. The bus has rubber tires and the wheels turn. On the side of the bus there is a painted sign that says “Manila: The Next Convention Bureau.” On the front of bus there are signs that read “Philippine Jeepney. Baclaran – Jai Alai – Quiapo.” There is also a small license plate attached that reads “1982.”
The Jeepneys got their start in the Philippines after World War II when the United States military left their surplus jeeps behind. The locals converted them into buses which became a primary mode of public transportation. The Jeepneys are decorated with bright and vibrant colors and have different hood ornaments on them. They are one of the cheapest ways to get around the towns of the islands.
The drivers of these vehicles must have a special license and they purchase a permit for a specific route. While there are licenses and permits that must be purchased there is no corporation in charge of the Jeepneys. Each Jeepney is owned by its driver, though there are a few instances of one operator owning a few Jeppenys, but this is not the norm. Because there can be multiple Jeepneys on the same route, this causes competition between the drivers to get as many customers as possible. This is beneficial to the passengers because with the high level of competition there are deals offered and most drivers are willing to pick you up from your doorstep just so they can get your patronage. Because of so many Jeepneys though there is a great deal of congestion in the city and so while it may be the cheapest way to get around, it may not be the fastest way. [Jennifer McPhail, edited by Kathryn S. McCloud]
Date: early 19th Century
Materials: leather, wood, metal
This is a leather side saddle. It was made by the Eddleman Brothers of Graham, in Young County, Texas. This saddle was ordered by Eugene Logan for his daughter Kate. He was a former Texas Ranger, and the town of Logan, NM was named after him. This saddle is made in the Western style, with two horns for more stable riding. It is of a fairly simple design and not heavily ornamented.
Side saddles have been around for a long time. Riding aside (as opposed to astride) put the female rider and her clothing on display, and illustrations showed it from 12th century onward. Earlier versions did not provide much support or much of a way for the rider to control the horse. It is thought that women were initially led by a male rider astride another horse. Women might also ride pillion, or on a padded seat, facing sideways, behind the male rider’s saddle. In the days of Queen Elizabeth I, newer designs incorporating a different style of saddle horn and a leaping pommel were developed. These innovations allowed for more control and more active riding.
The following video illustrates how a side saddle is used for jumping.
Proper posture is essential for riding sidesaddle safely. The right leg drapes over the upper pommel, with toes turned in towards the horse. The left leg, with spurs, is resting in the stirrup, under the leaping pommel. This lower pommel is what allows a rider to be able to stay mounted while jumping or riding on the hunt. The crop, or whip, held in the right hand and draped over the other side of the horse, stands in for a method to signal the horse where an astride rider would use their right leg.
There are different styles of sidesaddle, including Western and English. This particular saddle, with a heavier square leather skirt, is of the Western style of sidesaddle. It is very utilitarian, or at least as utilitarian as a side-saddle can be. A talented rider would still be able to carry out many ranch tasks on a saddle like this despite the more decorative purposes of side saddles. Though the side saddle is not as common as it once was, it has seen an increase in popularity since the 1970s in the United States.
Riding sidesaddle had its risks. The same leaping pommel that added stability for jumping also tended to lock women into place. Men’s saddles were likely to allow them to be thrown clear of a falling horse, while the sidesaddle would tangle legs, catch on skirts and petticoats, and potentially pin the female rider under a flailing horse. It was not unknown for women to break their backs in such a fashion. The safety apron, or skirt that was open in the back and meant to cover riding breeches or jodhpurs was a bit safer, but a later invention. While riders on the East Coast tended to lean towards London fashions and prefer riding sidesaddle, West Coast and rural riders, or equestriennes, preferred to ride astride in divided skirts. Sidesaddle riding began to fall out of fashion around the same time that women earned the vote, and in many ways, riding astride started to be transformed from a symbol of the libertine, the masculine woman or a heretic, to a symbol of a liberated woman seeking freedom. [Christine Moscardini-Hall, edited by Kathryn S. McCloud]