Tag Archive | European Culture

Object: Pike-halberd

I-0126a
Pike-halberd
1970s replica of a 15th century halberd
Materials: Cast iron

Castle of Nideggen, exhibits in keep (pole arms, including halbred, voulge and pollaxe). Photo by Sir Gawain, via WikiMedia Commons

This object is a replica of a halberd – a type of pike weapon used in Medieval Europe. A halberd is a medieval weapon that evolved from a two-handed axe. Over time, parts of the axe changed: the handle became much longer, more like a spear, the axe head became more oblique instead of square, a beak was added on the opposite side of the blade, and a long, pointed blade was added to the top end. Not all these changes were made simultaneously, but gradually and by different peoples.

The halberd was useful in battle when fighting against heavily armored foes, as the long handle allowed for a full body swing, enabling the blade to cleave through metal. The point at the end could be used for thrusting, and the beak on the back allowed the fighter to hook and drag horsemen from their mounts.

Halberds were used primarily between 1300 and 1650. They provided a weapon with a longer reach for infantry to use, especially when fighting against mounted enemies since they could be used as both a pike and an axe. They began to decline in use after that time, however, when fighting styles began to change. By the 1800s when firearms started to come into use, the halberd became almost exclusively ceremonial, instead used as a symbol of authority as with the Papal Guards.

During the Civil War in 1861, Company B of the Fifth Texas Mounted Volunteers consisted entirely of soldiers armed with lances, which are a type of pike similar to a halberd but without the axe head. The idea of being a lancer was very popular in Southern Texas and in 1862, George Washington Carter received permission to recruit an entire brigade of lancers, which were designated as the Twenty-first, Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth cavalry regiments. The Twenty-first regiment was divided into eleven companies. They served mainly as scouts and raiders to protect Texas from invasion and were finally disbanded in the spring of 1865. [Caitlin Bernstein, edited by Kathryn S. McCloud]

Additional Resources:

Snook, George A. The Halberd and Other European Polearms, 1300-1650. Bloomfield, ON: Museum Restoration Service, 1998.

The Art of Chivalry: European Arms and Armor from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Detroit: Detroit Institute of Arts, 1984.

Guilmartin, John F. “Military Technology”. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. December 28, 2011.

Bailey, Anne J. “Twenty-first Texas Cavalry.” Handbook of Texas Online, Texas State Historical Association. April 11, 2011.

Object: Lithograph

I-0287a
Lithograph
Hermann Lungkwitz
German American
Fredericksburg, TX
1813-1891
Materials: Paper and ink

Karl Friedrich Hermann Lungkwitz, “On the Pedernales River,” oil on paper. Image via Wikimedia Commons.

This object is a lithograph of the Texas Hill Country in Fredericksburg made by the artist and photographer Hermann Lungkwitz in the mid nineteenth century. Karl Friedrich Hermann Lungkwitz was a German artist trained at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Dresden, Saxony in the 1840s. In 1850, Lungkwitz and his family immigrated to the United States, moving from New York to Texas, where he started in New Braunfels in 1851, but eventually moved and settled in Fredericksburg in 1852. They purchased a farm on the Pedernales River, where he and his brother-in-law, Richard Petri, also an artist, grew potatoes and began their first paintings, sketches, and lithographs of the Texas countryside around their farm. In the mid-1850s, he began sketching and painting the San Antonio area as well – particularly the missions and town scenery.

By 1859, Lungkwitz began learning the art of photography with William DeRyee and Wilhelm Thielepape. They traveled between Texas towns to take photographs and display their images in magic lantern shows, in which pictures and portraits were projected on to a screen for an audience to view.

In the last years of the Civil War, the political climate in Fredericksburg became too much for the family to handle and they moved to San Antonio in 1864. Here, with the help of Thielepape, he sold his paintings to provide a small income before opening a school for drawing and drafting. In 1866, he opened a photographic studio with Carl von Iwonski, focusing primarily on offering inexpensive portraits of the people of San Antonio, which he continued until 1870 when he was made the official photographer of the General Land Office in Austin, a position he held for four years.

By 1874, Lungkwitz turned back to his love for painting – he sketched and painted scenes all around the Austin area and taught drawing at the Jacob Bickler’s German-American Select School for Boys. He continued painting and teaching for the remainder of his life.

Hermann Lungkwitz is responsible for the majority of the images we have of the 1800s Texas Hill Country, the missions of Texas, and much of old San Antonio. [Caitlin Bernstein, edited by Kathryn S. McCloud]

Additional Resources:

Von, Rosenberg M. German Artists of Early Texas: Hermann Lungkwitz and Richard Petri. Austin, Tex: Eakin, 1982.

McGuire, James P. Hermann Lungkwitz, Romantic Landscapist on the Texas Frontier. Austin: Published by the University of Texas Press, Austin, for the University of Texas Institute of Texan Cultures at San Antonio, 1983.

McGuire, James P. “Lungkwitz, Karl Friedrich Hermann.” Handbook of Texas Online, Texas State Historical Association. June 15, 2010.

Object: Vest

i-0407d-scan

I-0407d
Vest
Swedish
1922
Materials: Cloth/Thread

This object is a Swedish women’s vest.  It is part of a traditional costume made in 1922 in County Skane, Sweden.  Costumes like this can still be seen worn by women of Swedish descent during celebrations of Swedish culture.

The first Swedish immigrant to enter Texas was Swen Magnus Swenson in 1838.  He was an entrepreneur who started many businesses throughout his life, and founded SMS Ranches in west Texas- consisting of more than 300,000 acres.  He became a wealthy man due to his cotton plantation, and in 1844, he was joined by his uncle- Swante Palm– who was the first person to emigrate from Sweden with the goal of living in Texas.  Up until that point, most Swedish immigrants entered through Ellis Island in New York and established communities in the Northeast and Midwest.

In 1848, Swenson was convinced by his friend, Sam Houston, to bring more Swedish families to Texas.  The first group he brought over consisted of twenty-five people, mostly family and friends.  Swenson and his uncle then began operating an informal immigration company, initially paying people’s travel expenses to Texas from Sweden.  In turn, these people would pay back their credit by working as indentured labor on Swenson’s ranch.

By 1850, Swenson sold his ranch in west Texas and purchased 100,000 acres around Austin.   He continued his efforts in immigration throughout his life, establishing the strongest concentrations of Swedish-Americans, first around Austin, then fanning out to Dallas, Ft. Worth, and Waco.

Swedish Hill Historic District of Austin, TX. Photo by Renelibrary, via Wikimedia Commons.

People left Sweden mainly for economic and political reasons.  Population growth made farmland scarce, and the overpopulation made it nearly impossible for families to support themselves.  Another factor was the growing resentment against the Swedish Lutheran State Church, which was repressing the citizens and emphasizing the snobbery of the Swedish monarchy.  As with most other immigration groups, the promise of personal freedom, open spaces, and uncharted land attracted many to a new life in Texas.

By 1900, more than 4,000 Swedes were in Texas.  They proved to be hardworking and successful in business as well as ranching and farming.  Swedish immigrants were responsible for building churches and colleges, including Texas Wesleyan College in Austin and Trinity Lutheran College in Round Rock.

More than 160,000 Texans claim Swedish ancestry today.  Through organizations such as the Linneas Society, Vasa Lodges, New Sweden Cultural Heritage Society, and the Scandinavian Heritage Foundation, Swedish-Americans have both assimilated to the United States cultures, and kept their heritage alive.  These organizations were designed to give support to new immigrants, help them learn English, and provide an extended family in a new land.

Today, these organizations strive to provide education about Swedish culture, and preserve their heritage.  Though the Swedes of Texas value the culture of their homeland, they also embrace their life as Americans, and most prefer to be known as Swedish-Americans. [Carrie Klein, edited by Kathryn S. McCloud]

Additional Resources:

Haverlah, Elroy.  History of Swedish Lutheran Churches in Texas.  Texas: E. Haverlah, 2015.

Hoflund, Charles J. and H. Arnold Barton.  Getting Ahead: A Swedish Immigrant’s Reminiscences, 1834-1887.  Carbondale: Southern Illinois Press, 1989.

Scott, Larry E.  The Swedish Texans.  San Antonio, TX: University of Texas Institute of Texan Cultures at San Antonio, 1990.

Vassberg, David E.  Stockholm on the Rio Grande: A Swedish Farming Colony on the Mesquite Frontier of Southernmost Texas (1912-1985).  Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2003.

Object: Beer bottler

I-0220a
Beer bottler
Bottlers Specialty Mfg Co.
American
Chicago, IL
1912-1914
Materials: Metal

Interior of the Peter Brothers Brewery, ca. 1912. In front row (l. to r.’ Edward Peter, Gus Peter, and an unidentified man. John Peter (back row, right) holding beer mug. Photo via UTSA Special Collections, Digital Identifier CD# 430; 073-0019.tif

This object is a beer bottler from the Peter Bros. Brewery, which was in business from 1905 to 1910 in San Antonio, Texas. The brothers, John, Augustus “Gus”, and Edward bought a small house on East Commerce street in 1903 and began their brewing business in 1905. During prohibition the brewery no longer made beer, but operated as a soft-drink stand instead. In 1933, after the repeal of prohibition, the brothers open a lunchroom and sold local beers instead of producing their own.

The tradition of brewing in Texas began as early as the 1840s, when a large influx of German immigrants moved to Texas. For Germans, beer-drinking was an integral part of everyday life. When they began moving to Texas, it became important for them to have beer available to them, so people started brewing businesses.

One of the first known breweries in Texas was Julius Rennert’s, which he licensed in 1849 in the town of New Braunfels. The beer he made supplied many surrounding town’s saloons, including those of San Antonio. He stayed in business until the added competition of William Menger ‘s Western Brewery, or Menger Brewery, and the Lone Star Brewery caused him to close his brewing company in the 1880s and his son became a distributor for Lone Star.

Rennert was only one of the many people to start up brewing companies in San Antonio and the surrounding areas. Most stayed small and were only in business for a few years, with exceptions like Menger’s Western Brewery, Anheuser-Busch of Lone Star, Pearl Brewery, and the still operational Blue Star. Large commercialization of these companies, as well as prohibition in 1919 caused most of the small brewing companies to go out of business fairly quickly. The Peter Brothers’ Brewery was one of those short-lived businesses, but it seemed to enjoy a great deal of popularity in its time.

Be sure to visit the Institute of Texan cultures this fall to learn more about the history of beer in Texas in our upcoming exhibit Brewing Up Texas, scheduled to open on October 14th, 2017. [Caitlin Bernstein, edited by Kathryn S. McCloud]

Additional Resources:

Banas, Jeremy, and Travis E. Poling. San Antonio Beer: Alamo City History by the Pint. United States: Arcadia Publishing Inc, 2016.

Brown, Marissa. “Timeline: a history of beer in San Antonio.” San Antonio Express News. 2017.

Hennech, Mike. Encyclopedia of Texas Breweries: Pre-Prohibition (1836-1918). Ale Publishing Company, 1990.

Lucio, Valentino. “Small breweries being crafted to quench beer lovers’ thirst.” San Antonio Express News. November 12, 2012.

 

Object: Miter

2013_13_7

2013.13.7a-b
Greek Bishop’s Miter
Greek
20th Century
Materials: Cloth/Paper/Ink/Metal/Thread/Glass

This object is a Greek Bishop’s miter, or ceremonial headpiece.  It’s an elaborate headdress made from brocade, with elaborate embroidery and embellishments, and depicting Christian symbols and figures.   It belonged to Bishop John of Amorion, who was the first American-born bishop of the Greek Orthodox Church.  He was ordained in 1971 at the Annunciation Cathedral in Houston, Texas.

The Greek immigration story into Texas is a colorful and adventurous one.  The first recorded Greek immigrant, known only as Captain Nicholas, entered Galveston Island with the well-known pirate, Jean Lafitte in 1817.  He married a woman from the Karankawa tribe, but lost her in a storm.  He then sailed with Lafitte around the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, before finally returning to Galveston in 1842.

By 1860, Captain Nicholas was one of only two Greeks registered in Texas. He lived out his life selling fish and oysters, and transporting charcoal from the mainland to the island until his death in the Galveston storm of 1900.  He was nearly 100 years old when he died.

Many Greeks emigrated out of Greece to escape political, social, and economic problems.  Despite gaining independence after almost 400 years of Turkish rule, many people were still feeling oppressed, and by 1910, almost 10% of Greeks had emigrated out of their homeland.

Greek immigrants to Texas didn’t come as families, but rather as single men, looking for opportunities in the cities.  The first Greek colony in Texas was in Galveston, where 37 Greeks worked in saloons, markets, and cotton gins. They saw opportunities  to move up the economic ladder, working entry level jobs while learning English, saving money, and eventually opening their own businesses- often as restaurant owners, real estate investors, and owners of confectioneries– shops where candy was made and sold. By the early 1900s there were several thousand Greeks living in Texas, but they were scattered over 250,000 square miles of the state.

St. Sophia Greek Orthodox Church of San Antonio. Photo by Casca L., via Yelp.com

The first Greek Orthodox Church was finally established in Texas in 1910, near the Ft. Worth stockyards. It didn’t take long to determine that one parish serving the entire state was impractical, and soon, several more churches were built in cities around the state. In San Antonio, the untimely death of a small child due to illness was followed by a two week delay in burial because there wasn’t a Greek Orthodox priest nearby. The local Greek community, grieving the loss of the child, knew this wasn’t acceptable.  In response, St. Sophia Greek Orthodox Church was finally established in San Antonio in 1924.

Today, there are more than 32,319 Greeks in Texas.  They celebrate their heritage and customs proudly.  Through decades of growth and change, they have had one enduring source of stability and connection to their roots- the Orthodox Church. [Carrie Klein, edited by Kathryn S. McCloud]

ADDITIONAL READINGS

Callinicos, Constantine.  The Greek Orthodox Church.  London, New York:  Longmans, Green, and Co., 1918.

Fairchild, Henry Pratt.  Greek Immigration to the United States.  New Haven: Yale University Press, 1911.

Greene, Meg.  Greek Americans.  San Diego: Lucent Books, 2003.

Witliff, William D.  The Greek Texans.  Texas: Encino Press, 1974.

Object: Helmet

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I-0178a
Helmet (pickelhaube)
Prussian
Germany
1904
Materials: leather, brass, lacquer

This object is a helmet, specifically a pickelhaube, from 1904. This helmet is believed to have been worn by the 67th infantry regiment of the Prussian army signified by the eagle shaped plate (or wappen) on the front of the helmet.

Prussian uniforms in 1845. Image via WikiMedia Commons.

The Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm invented this style of helmet in 1842. The original design of the helmet was highly impractical for use when it was first designed – it was much too tall and unbalanced. Soldiers had problems with the helmet falling off and it being much too heavy for use during battle or even drills. In 1856 when King Wilhelm took over from his brother King Friedrich, adjustments were made the helmet so that it was more functional for military use. The height was lessened and the materials adjusted to the style that was kept by the military up until the end of World War I.

The helmet itself consisted of a leather shell with visors on both the front and rear, the latter being used for neck protection. Both visors had brass reinforcement on the trim to help the helmet and visors keep their shape. The leather was covered in a black lacquer that could be polished and kept shiny. Each regiment in the army would have its own wappen, or insignia, in brass or silver on the front of the helmet above the visor. The distinguishing feature of this style of helmet was the spike on the top of the helmet – it was immediately recognizable to everyone at the time as belonging to the the German military.

World War I propaganda poster for enlistment in the US Army, ca. 1917. Image via WikiMedia Commons

During World War I, the image of the pickelhaube was used as propaganda against the Germans, as it was something everyone understood to be distinct to German soldiers. There is an iconic image from World War I of a large gorilla wearing a pickelhaube and carrying a unconscious woman with the words “Destroy this Mad Brute” across the top. It was a propagandist poster to encourage people to enlist in the army. The pickelhaube was the most iconic part of the German uniform and was easily incorporated into the idea that Germans were brutes that needed to be stopped.

Propaganda against Germans spread quickly in America. Suspicion of anyone of German descent grew as the war went on and Americans began to become fearful of the thought of German spies living among them. Any German societies, newspapers, or services of any kind were shut down. There are even records of German-Americans getting lynched.

In 1916, the pickelhaube was replaced with the similarly iconic stahlhelm, or steel helmet, because the pickelhaube was not suitable for trench warfare; it was not durable and was very expensive to produce because of the British blockade of South America, where Germany imported the leather for the helmets. The stahlhelm was made out of a single sheet of steel – it was inexpensive, easy to produce, and provided much better protection for the soldiers in combat. The pickelhaube, however, remains one of the most recognizably German styles of World War I military dress.

Visit the Institute of Texan Cultures today to see an exhibit about Texas in the First World War [Caitlin Bernstein, edited by Kathryn S. McCloud].

Additional Resources:

Rankin, Robert H. Helmets and Headdress of the Imperial German Army 1870-1918. New Milford, Conn: N. Flayderman, 1965.

Bowman, J A. The Pickelhaube. Lancaster, England: Imperial Publications, 1989.

Paddock, Troy R. E. A Call to Arms: Propaganda, Public Opinion, and Newspapers in the Great War. Westport Conn. etc.: Praeger, 2004.

Bell, Brian. Wehrmacht Combat Helmets 1933-45. London: Osprey Pub, 2014.

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