Native American culture area
When Europeans came to what is now Texas, they found people with diverse life-styles and cultures. While the Apaches roamed the plains hunting buffalo, the Caddos of east Texas were living in towns with temples and plazas. To the west, Puebloan farmers found ways to grow corn in the desert, while, in the harsh scrublands south of San Antonio, small bands of Indians lived by hunting small game and gathering wild plants and fruits. The Karankawas of the southern Texas coast lived on the special resources of the Gulf of Mexico. The Tonkawas lived in the then-grassy hills of central Texas, hunting and gathering their food.
The Texas Indians were as different from one another as the English were from the Spanish. Both Indians and Europeans spoke different languages, had different religions, and were often allies and often enemies. The Indians’ ancestors had not only been here before Columbus, but before Christ was born, and even before the first “town” in the world, Jericho, was founded almost 10,000 years ago.