Chinese culture area
The first known Chinese migration into Texas came in 1870, when a group of 300 laborers were brought to Calvert in the Brazos valley to build a railroad to Dallas. When the road was finished, many of them returned to towns along the route which had appealed to them, and settled. A decade later, when the building of the Southern Pacific line reached El Paso, another large group of Chinese laborers entered Texas. When their work was complete, they, too, settled in towns along the route, with many concentrating in El Paso. The next major influx came in 1917, when several hundred Chinese who had befriended American troops during their invasion of Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa, settled at San Antonio under the sponsorship of General John (Black Jack) Pershing. With the Communist take-over of China in 1948-49, a final wave of immigration occurred, as many students and professional people fled their homeland. The older Chinese Texans today are primarily natives of Canton province who came as laborers, stayed to establish small stores, and clung to old ways in small tight-knit ethnic enclaves in the cities. Their children, who were well educated, have entered many professions, and with the more recent professional immigrants, make up a large group of teachers, college professors, doctors, architects, chemists and engineers.